Asthma in a child: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Let’s figure out what symptoms one can suspect of bronchial asthma in a child, how it is diagnosed and treated.

How to understand that a child has asthma?

Bronchial asthma in children can manifest themselves with different symptoms. Symptoms can also change in the same child at different ages.

 A child with asthma may experience the following symptoms:
– Coughing, especially during games, in a dream, with laughter and crying.
– A chronic cough (may be the only symptom).
Passivity in games.
– Frequent breathing (periodically).
Complaints of contraction or pain in the chest area.
– Whistling sound during inspiration or exhalation.
– Strong chest movement during breathing. These movements are called retraction.
– Shortness of breath, shortness of breath, lack of air.
– Feeling of weakness or fatigue.

Almost 50% of children who complain of shortness of breath have a chronic cough or chronic laryngitis, asthma is not detected. Therefore, such a condition in children is characterized as a reactive airway disease.

How often does asthma occur in children?

Asthma is the main chronic disease in children. 10-12% of children in the world suffer from asthma and this figure is constantly increasing.

Asthma risk factors:
• Allergic rhinitis (hay fever).
• Eczema (allergic skin rash).
• Asthma in relatives.
• Frequent acute respiratory infections.
• Low birth weight.
• Second-hand smoke.
• Development of a child in a low-income family.
• Laryngitis in a child.

Before forming an answer to the question of how to cure asthma, it is necessary to pass a qualitative diagnosis and make a program of treatment.

Diagnosis of asthma in children

Bronchial asthma in children is exposed on the basis of medical history, complaints, data of instrumental examination.

Case history and complaints: Parents inform the doctor of all episodes of shortness of breath that they observed in the child. It turns out whether there is asthma in relatives, the presence of allergies, lung disease. It is important to give the doctor a complete information and correctly describe the symptoms (a cough, wheezing, pain or a feeling of contraction in the chest), to note when and how often these symptoms manifest.

• Physical examination: The doctor listens to the lungs and the heart of a small patient, looking for signs of allergic reactions in the child.

• Instrumental and laboratory studies: Radiography, spirometry (for children older than 6 years) provide information on the structure and function of the lungs. The spirometer measures the volume of inhalation/expiration, that is, the volume of the lungs, and also the rate of expiration. The stage of the disease is also determined. Other methods are also used: testing for allergic skin rashes, a blood test (radioallergosorbent test.

Methods of treating asthma in children

Avoid allergen; Regular intake of medicines; Constant monitoring of the symptoms of the disease – these are the main ways to control asthma at any age.

On the basis of the findings, the doctor issues a diagnosis indicating the form and stage of the disease. The diagnosis is the reason for the appointment of treatment. A treatment program is drawn up, which details how and when to take what to do if the child becomes worse (transition of asthma to the yellow or red zone) and when it is necessary to call an ambulance. Having received a written copy of the program, make sure that you understand it correctly and if you have any questions, immediately ask them the doctor.

The treatment program is a key important point in the successful treatment of asthma, especially in children.

The treatment program should always be at hand.

It is desirable to duplicate it in a format that is understandable to the child so that from childhood he learns to control his state and understands what to do if he suddenly becomes ill. It is necessary to give a copy of the program to the kindergarten teacher or the schoolteacher of your child so that he knows what to do if the child has a sudden asthma attack outside the home.


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